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Children with special needs

Submitted By Nimi Sunil on 20 April 2017

Children with special needs - Characteristic and Classroom adaptations

Children with special needs include the

  • Visually impaired
  • Hearing impaired
  • Physically disabled
  • Speech impaired
  • Ones with Autism etc
  • Mentally challenged
  • Ones with Specific learning disability
  • ADHD
  • Ones with Emotional behavioral disorder

1. The characteristics and classroom adaptations of visually impaired are
Characteristic- Totally blind, functional blindness, low vision are included, affects the child's learning motor development social adjustment and interaction
Classroom adaptations-Teaching materials should not rely fully on visuals like chalk boards, printout, projector, LCD. Teacher expresses verbally giving extra support

2. The characteristics and classroom adaptations of Hearing impaired are
Characteristic- Hearing loss that adversely affects educational performance, adverse affects on language learning, development of speaking skills and social functioning
Classroom adaptations - These students need a lot of visual supplements

3. The characteristics and classroom adaptations of Physical Disabilities are
Characteristics - Orthopedic impairments, impair physical movement, neuro motion impairments
Classroom adaptations - Personal space, extra time, assistance of technology

4. The characteristics and classroom adaptations of Speech impairment are
Characteristics - Speech that deviates from ordinary speech and hence cannot be comprehended, interferes with communication, (articulation disorders, voice disorders and fluency disorders)
Classroom adaptations - Teachers need patience in trying to understand these students. Give opportunities for written representation instead of oral; Give the child time to respond.

5. The characteristics and classroom adaptations of Autism are
Characteristics - Developmental disorder with impairments in communication social and emotional functioning, problems in social interactions responding to others, bizarre and stereotypical behavior.
Classroom adaptations- A picture schedule for instruction, Environment without distraction, Verbal reminders of what will happen next, a quiet place to retire, scope for social interaction and imitations of social stories

6. The characteristics and classroom adaptations of mentally challenged are
Characteristics - Inadequate intellectual functioning, deficits in adaptive behavior could be genetic, due to brain damage before, during or just after birth.
Classroom adaptations-  Individualized instruction to meet the child's needs. Be sensitive to the child's self esteem. Use concrete examples and illustrations. Have positive expectations. Provide support in developing adaptive skills. Look for resource support. Use applied behavior analysis strategies.

7. The characteristics and classroom adaptations of Specific Learning Disabilities are
Characteristics - Children of normal or even above average intelligence, difficulty in one or more academic areas, have no other diagnosed problem or disorder. The three common academic areas of disability are reading, writing and mathematics.
Classroom adaptations- Take the needs of the child while planning lessons and make necessary modifications. Provide adaptations while testing and assignment, Highlighting underlining etc, Improve organizational skills and modify study habits, Provide supplements according to their needs.

 8. The characteristics and classroom adaptations of ADHD are
Characteristics - Inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, dose not attend to the teacher's instruction, easily distracted and cannot sit still in the class, difficulty in focusing on one thing, do not think before acting.
Classroom adaptations- Simplify instructions, supplement verbal instructions with visual instruction, Involve resource teachers, State clear expectations and give immediate feedback, Use behavior management strategies (positive feedback), connect learning to real life experiences, use variety of activities and technology

9. The characteristics and classroom adaptations of emotional and behavioral are
Characteristics -Serious, persistant problems that involve relationships, aggression depression and fears
Classroom adaptations - Develop a supportive context. Have a close bond with parents, Use peer mediation and support, Make them feel more secure, be firm but kind.

Question of ktet

Hena has difficulty to work independently without listening to the words of the teacher, she frequently gets up from her seat to sharpen th pencil and look out of the window. She rarely completes her homework. To which category of children with special needs, does hena include (ktet 2016 )
1. Mental retardation
3. Down's syndrome
4. Cerebral palsy
 2. ADHD full form ---
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder



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